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Contents of this page

  1. Keyboard shortcuts
  2. Additional articles
    1. Footprints of mammals and birds
    2. Smells and flavors
    3. Unusual sculptures
    4. Optic illusions
    5. Society
    6. Science and Technology
    7. Heritage of Gers Lomagne
    8. The life laws
  3. Site map
  4. Design and Accessibility rules
  5. Partner schools and organizations
  6. Weblinks that deal with Website Design and Checking
  7. About the Author of this Website
    1. Overall
    2. Publications
    3. Training

1. Keyboard shortcuts

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These keyboard shortcuts can be used via a combination of keyboard keys. The list of these combinations sorted by Operating System then by Browser is as follows.
Warning : Shift is sometimes useless on some keyboards (including the QWERTY and QWERTZ keyboards).

Sources :
Wikipedia, Access key.
Mozilla, Accesskey.

2. Additional articles

The site hosts several additional short and synthetic articles. See Contents.

2.1. Footprints of mammals and birds

Picture Mammal footprints     Picture Bird footprints

Footprints printed on the ground or in the snow allow most mammals and birds to be identified.
For birds, the identification method is based on each Isolated footprint, a bird being able to only walk or hop on the ground.
For mammals, the identification relies on the joint use of three different methods based on the following observations :
- Isolated footprint,
- Succession of footprints, giving the movement pattern of the animal,
- Droopings of the animal.

Isolated footprint

Mammal footprints are all Hand type (with 3, 4 or 5 fingers per paw, excluding palm), Pads type (with 4 or 5 digital pads per paw, excluding palm) or Hooves type (with 1, 2, 3 or 4 fingers per paw, excluding foot sole).
Bird footprints are all Hand type comprising, with some exceptions, 3 fingers per paw supplemented by a fourth opposite finger (thumb) which may be reduced or completely absent.
The 4 slides below present a method of identifying mammals and birds from their isolated footprints.

Sources :
(empreintes des mammifères) Ma Chasse, Les mammifères.
(empreintes des mammifères) France Nature Environnement - Haute-Savoie, Les empreintes.
(empreintes des mammifères) Gilles Christophe, FRAPNA, Les mammifères de Rhne-Alpes- les empreintes.
(empreintes des mammifères) Salamandre, Empreinte de mammifères.
(empreintes des oiseaux) Ma Chasse, Les oiseaux.
(oiseaux) Zadi Bridge, Combien les oiseaux ont-ils de doigts ?.
(ongulés) Puverel Camille, Leprince Julie, Atlas des mammifères de Rhône-Alpes - Les ongulés.

Picture Footprints : page1
Picture Footprints : page2
Picture Footprints : page3
Picture Footprints : page4

Succession of footprints

The slide below presents a method of identifying quadrupedal mammals from their movement pattern.
The legs are marked as follows : 1 left front leg, 2 right front leg, 3 left hind leg, 4 right hind leg, P projection in the air (hanging time).
The main movement patterns are as follows :

Nota :
- Walking exists in all quadrupedal mammals. For some, it is sometimes slow and infrequent (that of the squirrel for example).
- For the first five movement patterns (Walk, Trot, Back up, Amble, Gallop), the order of legs movement is always the same : 1 4 2 3, with some legs sometimes being moved together, being part of the same diagonal or the same side.

Sources :
(amble) Wikipedia, Amble.
(amble et galop du cheval) Dictionnaire visuel - Allures du cheval.
(bond du renard, lièvre et écureuil) Espaces, Suivre à la trace.
(bond de la belette) J'ai suivi une petite belette sauvage (Youtube, 5:45).
(bond de l'écureuil) Pilon Michel, Forum Image et Nature.
(démarche des mammifères) Les Chasseurs à l'Arc de la Réunion, LES TRACES D'ANIMAUX DANS LA FORET (EUROPE).
(démarche des mammifères) Couzi Laurent, Planche N1 intitulée "Empreintes animales" du livre Phénomènes, Juzeau C. , Rébulard M., Caradec C., Editions du Chêne, 2023.
(marche, amble et bonds) La Presse+, Jouer au détective dans la neige.
(marche, amble et bonds) Fédération Canadienne de la Faune, A la découverte du monde du pistage d'animaux.
(pas, trot et galop du cheval) Le Monde des Chevaux, Les allures.
(pas, trot et galop du cheval) Wikipedia, Allure (équitation).
(pas, trot et galop du cheval) Lenoble du Teil Jules, Etude sur la locomotion du cheval et des quadrupèdes en général, 1873, LENOBLE_ETUDE_SUR_LA_LOCOMOTION_1873.pdf (accompagné d'un atlas de 23 planches).
(reculer du cheval) Blog Equitation Nord, Hippologie : les allures.
(reculer du cheval) Devos Emma, chevalogie.free.fr, Le reculer.
(vidéos du cheval) Hippologie.fr, Les allures du cheval.
(vidéo du trot du cerf) Cerf qui court et au trot (Youtube, 4:11).
(vidéo du galop du cheval) galop au ralenti (Youtube, 1:08).
(vidéo du galop du chameau) Course de chameaux en Egypte (Youtube, 1:54).
(vidéo du bond du chevreuil) CHEVREUIL/Sauts et Course ! BRUITX (Youtube, 2:00).

Picture Footprints : page5


The slide below presents a method of identifying mammals from the shape and texture of their droppings.
Size is another clue. It is generally proportional to the length of the animal's rectum, therefore also to the size of the animal.
Color is also another clue, but it depends on the freshness of the deposit and the ingestion of some foods. For examples :
- Fresh mouse droppings are black and turn brown after about 24 hours.
- The color of hedgehog droppings can vary from black to brown to different shades of gray, depending on its diet which mainly consists of insects, molluscs and small vertebrates.
- A dog that eats too many bones or industrial food containing too much animal flour will produce white droppings. In the sun, the white color will be even more pronounced because the water contained in the droppings evaporates, bringing out the calcium.
- A wolf that swallows the bones of its prey will produce white droppings.

The deposit of droppings is generally done on the paths taken by the animal. For carnivores, in addition to the natural evacuation function, the deposit corresponds to the visual and odorous marking of the territory, often at crossroads between paths.

Sources :
(détail) Gilles Christophe, FRAPNA, Les mammifères de Rhne-Alpes - Les fèces.
(détail) Martin Alexis, Petit guide illustré des crottes de mammifères.
(détail) Salamandre, Crottes de mammifères.
(général) Espace pour la vie Montréal, Des crottes qui en ont long à dire.
(images) Lahaye Romain, Atlas préliminaire des Mammifères sauvages de Bourgogne.
(tableau) France Nature Environnement - Haute-Savoie, Les crottes.
(tableau) Carbala, Espace outil pédagogique.

Picture Footprints : page6

2.2. Smells and flavors

Smell and taste are the two senses that aroused the least interest from scientific researchers until the 1960s.
Today, we know that the sensory perception of smells and flavors is a subtle mix between universal principles, personal perception and culture.

Picture Smells

Smells are molecules detected chemically by olfactory receptors located in the nasal cavity.
They can take two distinct routes : a direct route, called orthonasal, located in the nose (concept of "smell") or an indirect route, called retro-nasal, located in the back of the throat (concept of "aroma" released by food in the mouth).
There is to date no universal consensus on the categorization of smells. Only perfumery and oenology have produced specific classifications.
The table below allows you to simply categorize smells according to their effects (unpleasant/pleasant) and their origins (mineral, plant, animal, human).

Sources :
Claude Boisson, "La dénomination des odeurs : variations et régularités linguistiques", Intellectica, 1997/1, 24, pp. 29-49.
Sophie David, Danièle Dubois, Catherine Rouby, Benoist Schaal, "L'expression des odeurs en français : analyse lexicale et représentation cognitive", Intellectica, 1997/1, 24, pp. 51-83.
Dico du Vin, Odeurs du vin, nouvelle classification, Dico-du-Vin 2023.
Danièle Dubois, "Des catégories d'odorants à la sémantique des odeurs", Terrain, 47 | 2006, 89-106.
Camille Gaubert, 03.05.2022, "Notre perception des odeurs n'est que très peu liée à notre culture", Cerveau et Psy.
André Holley, "Le physiologiste et la catégorisation des odeurs", Intellectica, 1997/1, 24, pp. 21-27.
L'Atelier du Vin, Guide des arômes du vin et de leur perception en oenologie.
Hervé-Pierre Lambert, "L'imaginaire, les neurosciences et l'olfactif : confirmations et extrapolations", IRIS, 33 | 2012, 37-51.
C. Sulmont-Rossé, I. Urdapilleta, "De la mise en mots des odeurs", chapitre 28 (pp. 373-382) du livre : Odorat et Goût : de la neurobiologie des sens chimiques aux applications agronomiques, industrielles et médicales, Edition QUAE.
Luca Poyo Vallina, 24 nov. 2022, "Les 10 principales odeurs perçues par l'odorat humain", Divain, .
Wikipedia, Rétro-olfaction.

Picture Flavors

Flavors are molecules detected chemically by taste receptors located on the taste buds of the tongue.
Other sensations in the mouth, also called "flavors" in the broad sense, do not involve the taste buds and are sensory (olfactory, auditory, visual) and somesthetic (thermal, tactile, proprioceptive (position and movement) and nociceptive (pain)).
The table below describes the basic flavors, "flavors" being taken in the broad sense. They can then combine with each other to form more elaborate taste sensations.

Sources :
Le Thi Maï Allafort, Connaissez-vous les mots du goût ? Lorsque les textures font le plaisir !, Marie Claire.
Christine Belloir, Récepteurs gustatifs humains : étude des relations structure-fonction, Thèse 2019, Université de Bourgogne.
Diane Boivineau, Evaluation gnoso-praxique linguale des enfants avec trouble structurel du langage oral, Mémoire 2013/2014, Université Paris VI.
Loïc Briand, "La chimie du goût", CultureSciences-Chimie.
Juliette Defossez, Vers un langage du goût : approche expérimentale d'une communication multimodale à destination des mangeurs, Thèse 2014, Université de Bourgogne.
Audrey Dufour, 24/01/2017, "Comment reconnaît-on les saveurs ?", La Croix.
Goûts et Papilles, C'est quoi le goût ? Odeur, saveur, flaveur....
FasterCapital, Au-delà du goût : comment la texture influence notre perception des aliments.
Claire Gresser, Contribution à l'étude de la composante trigéminale dans la posture cervico-faciale, Thèse 2005, Université de Lorraine.
Tanya Lewis, 5 octobre 2021, "Ce que les piments peuvent nous apprendre sur la douleur", Pour la Science.
Christophe Otte, Olivier Otte, Régulation des dysfonctions maxillo-faciales de l'enfant, Clinique OPS.
Dale Purves, George J. Augustine, David Fitzpatrick, Lawrence C. Katz, Anthony-Samuel LaMantia, James O. McNamara, Neurosciences - Les sens chimiques, DeBoeck
Rapport du groupe PNNS - Qualité gustative des aliments et environnement des repas : restauration scolaire, hospitalière et aide alimentaire, décembre 2010.
Si on me coupait la langue, pourrais-je toujours savourer mes repas ?, La sensation trigéminale.
Wikipedia, Goût.
Wikipedia, Thermorécepteur.

2.3. Unusual sculptures

Wind sculptures of Berrac
Picture Wind sculpture of Berrac - Elegante Picture Wind sculpture of Berrac - Extravagante Picture Wind sculpture of Berrac - Endurante Picture Wind sculpture of Berrac - Fascinante

The Author of this site has made four wind sculptures installed in his garden in Berrac (Gers).

Description :

Design :
These sculptures are made with recycled products (aluminum rails for thermal insulation frame, PVC camping bowls, plastic jerrycan sides, tennis ball, rebar, etc.).
All moving parts are carried on ball bearings.
All the fixed elements are assembled by stainless steel screws.
The sculptures are fixed to the ground by a vertical mast (galvanized steel fence post or old steel water pipe).

Wind sculpture by Pierre Luu
Picture Wind sculpture by Pierre Luu - plan 1 Picture Wind sculpture by Pierre Luu - plan 2 Picture Wind sculpture by Pierre Luu - plan 3

Pierre Luu is a French sculptor who has created sculptures with unpredictable movements, driven by wind or water, including the "wind turbine with random motion" (see Figures above, and video "Mobile eolien art cinétique" in [Pierre Luu]).

Description :
Figure 1 above : general view (cf [Art et Eau]).
Figure 2 above : zoom on blades twist angle (video clip 0:12).
Figure 3 above : zoom on blades lenght (video clip 0:22).
The "wind turbine with random motion" is made up of 5 moving parts in unstable equilibrium (cf [Pierre Luu - Quelque chose ne tourne pas rond][Art et Eau - Quelque chose ne tourne pas rond]).
The balance is all the more unstable as there is no weather vane to orient the sculpture in the wind direction. The blue ball is aesthetic and symbolizes the Earth (cf my email of March 5, 2023 from Pierre Luu to Régis Petit).
The two blades are of different size with a secondary rotation nested within the primary rotation (cf [Pierre Luu - Eolide].
The sculpture slowly comes to life and changes shape thanks to the wind action. The movement is maintained by inertia due to the balance of the masses (cf [Art et Eau - Quelque chose ne tourne pas rond]).
The sculpture unfolds in an enigmatic choreography and only finds temporary stability when the blades reach a certain speed (cf [Pierre Luu - Quelque chose ne tourne pas rond]).

Design :
The whole is designed in a search for balance between the masses, the gravity centers, the surfaces exposed to the wind and the relative angles of the surfaces (cf [Pierre Luu - Quelque chose ne tourne pas rond]).
The mobile elements are fixed by ball bearings for all sculptures in project version (cf email of March 7, 2023 from Pierre Luu to Régis Petit). This combination allows fluid rotations and movements even in light winds (cf [Pierre Luu - Fragments mobile éolien).
Material : stainless steel and composite materials (cf [Art et Eau - Quelque chose ne tourne pas rond]).
Height : 3 m 50 (cf [Art et Eau - Quelque chose ne tourne pas rond]).

Sources :
Pierre Luu - Mobile eolien art cinétique (YouTube, 01:57).
Pierre Luu - Un art en mouvement - Sculptures éoliennes et mobiles.
Pierre Luu - Un art en mouvement - Quelque chose ne tourne pas rond.
Pierre Luu - Un art en mouvement - Fragments mobile éolien.
Pierre Luu - Un art en mouvement - Eolide.
Pierre Luu - Un art en mouvement - Solaris : sculpture éolienne et solaire autonome en énergie.
Art et Eau - Ellipse, quelque chose ne tourne pas rond.

Kinetics sculptures by Jeff Kahn
Picture Kinetic sculpture by Jeff Kahn - Astrolabe Picture Kinetic sculpture by Jeff Kahn  - Naked Alien Picture Kinetic sculpture by Jeff Kahn - I Ching

Jeff Kahn is an American sculptor who created kinetic sculptures, titled "Invisible Forces", from aluminum and stainless steel.
These sculptures explore balance and gravity and how almost imperceptible air currents interact with them. They are extremely sensitive to the surrounding environment (light breezes, sun heat, weight of the morning dew). See above Figures 1, 2 and 3 showing three particular sculptures : "Astrolabe", "Naked Alien" and "I Ching".
Jeff Kahn's studio is located in Lenhartsville, Pennsylvania, USA.

Sources :
Jeff Kahn - Bio.
Jeff Kahn - Catalog.
Jeff Kahn - Videos.

Hypnotic sculpture by Anthony Howe
Picture Hypnotic sculpture by Anthony Howe Picture Hypnotic sculpture by Anthony Howe - zoom of each arm Picture Hypnotic sculpture by Anthony Howe - zoom of each bearing

Anthony Howe is an American sculptor who has created hypnotic mobile sculptures including "Di-Octo" in 2014 (see Figures 1, 2 and 3 above, and "Di-Octo" video in [Anthony Howe] and [KULTT]).
Anthony Howe currently lives in Eastsound, Orcas Island, San Juan County, Washington State (USA).

Description :
Di-Octo is a half-octopus, half-star, wind-driven and near-silent mobile sculpture.
The original Di-Octo, designed and made by Anthony Howe, has been industrialized in two identical copies by Show Canada Inc (Laval steelworks in Quebec) as follows (cf email of March 10, 2023 from David Boulay (Show Canada Inc) to Régis Petit) :

Design :
Di-Octo is 8 meters high, 3 meters in diameter, weighs 725 kilograms and requires only 2 km/h of wind for its moving parts to activate (cf [Concordia University]).
Di-Octo is composed of 36 arms each carrying 16 very thin steel domes and rotating around a vertical circular ring. The inter-arm connections are of the intermediate wheel type with drive fingers. See detail in Figure 3 above (cf [Show Canada]).
The arms always turn in the same direction, regardless of the wind direction. This is due to the domes shape (cf email of March 19, 2023 from David Boulay to Régis Petit).
Di-Octo is entirely made of 316 stainless steel, which gives it better corrosion resistance as well as non-magnetic properties (cf [Show Canada]).

Other similar sculptures :
Anthony Howe designed and made other sculptures similar to Di-Octo (cf [Anthony Howe, https://www.howeart.net/about]) :

Sources :
Anthony Howe.
Anthony Howe - Shindahiku (Fern pull).
The DC Blike Blogger - Shindahiku (Fern Pull).
KULTT - Les sculptures hypnotiques d'Anthony Howe.
Anthony Howe - Di-Octo (Youtube 1:10).
Anthony Howe - Di-Octo (long version) (Youtube 1:33).
Université Concordia - Di-Octo : captivant, cinétique et unique.
Show Canada.
JuanG3D : Di-Octo 3D Model.
What's on - Check out these alien-esque kinetic sculptures in Dubai.
UAE - Famous American artist brings kinetic sculptures to Dubai.
reddit - "Octo II", Anthony Howe, stainless steel, 2013..

Hypnotic sculpture by Jennifer Townley
Picture Hypnotic sculpture by Jennifer Townley Picture Hypnotic sculpture by Jennifer Townley - bricks zoom

Jennifer Townley is a Dutch artist who has created hypnotic mobile sculptures including "Asinas" in 2015 (see Figure 1 above, and video "Asinas").
When viewed at a standstill from the front, it looks like a double helix like the usual representation of DNA.

Description (cf [Jennifer Townley]) :
"Asinas" is a mobile sculpture composed of two helixes that intertwine and slide into each other, producing a fluid and natural movement.
The two helixes slowly rotate in opposite directions and at slightly different speeds, gradually transforming the sculpture.
A demonstration of how this sculpture works helps to better understand this description (see video "Asinas Working Demonstration" in [Amogh Jadhav] and video "SolidWorks Mechanical Sculpture" in [tecnoloxia.org]).

Design :
The sixty-five white wooden bricks that form the two helixes increase in size towards the middle of the sculpture, giving it a conical shape.
Each brick has the shape of a Z with 90 degree angles. The bricks of a helix are fixed on the rotation axis. The bricks of the other helix are connected to one another through small spacers (see Figure 2 above from [Amogh Jadhav]).
The bricks are made from painted wood. The frame is made of steel as well as all the parts connecting the gears to their axes, the bearings to the frame, etc.
Then there are all the other parts : an electric motor, heavy steel spur gears and sprockets, two belts and lots of bearings (cf [The Plus Paper]).

Sources :
Asinas - Jennifer Townley - 2015 - Kinetic art (Youtube 2:31).
Jennifer Townley - Asinas.
L'Usine Nouvelle - Hypnotiques, ces sculptures cinétiques vous étonneront.
Amogh Jadhav - Asinas.
Amogh Jadhav - Asinas Working Demonstration (Youtube 2:14).
tecnoloxia.org - As esculturas cinéticas de Jennifer Townley.
MadCadSkills : Jennifer Townley - SolidWorks Mechanical Sculpture (Youtube 3:43).
The Plus Paper - Asinas : Fluent Movement.

Walking robot by Theo Jansen
Picture Walking robot - one legWalking robot - six legsPicture Walking robot

Theo Jansen is a Dutch sculptor who in 1991 created strange creatures including the walking robot (see Figures 1 and 2 above).

Working :
This walking robot is a mechanism with very light legs which can move on a horizontal plane under the wind action or on an inclined plane under the action of its own weight (see video cf [Jansen, Plaudens Vela]).
The only actuator in the robot is a central crankshaft making the connection between the legs and the robot body (see red while on Figure 2, and also [Exergia]).
For a robot with three pairs of legs, the crankshaft has three cranks offset successively by 120 to have a constant movement of the robot during the propulsion phase (see Figure 2).

Body description :
The robot body consists of a horizontal platform (length 2a) and vertical fixed supports (length l) carrying the crankshaft (eccentricity m). See Figure 3 above.
The double length (a) of the platform is calculated to ensure non-collision between the front legs and the rear legs.
The length (l) of the supports can be modified to ensure an overall horizontal movement of the robot. Increasing or decreasing the length (l) amounts to pivoting all the bars of each leg around each fixed point F.

Legs description :
Each leg consists of ten articulated bars (bars b to k) of which two form a rigid link (bars e and h)). See Figure 3 above.
The two legs of the same pair are identical and mirror each other on each side of the crankshaft.
The foot of each leg describes an ovoid curve whose lower part is almost flat and horizontal, thus allowing the foot to be in contact with the ground during the propulsive phase.
In the return phase, the foot lifts off the ground and the robot can step over small obstacles without lifting its body too much.
The table of Figure 3 gives the length of each bar according to different authors :

Sources :
Jansen - Plaudens Vela.
Jansen - plaudens vela 1 (Youtube 0:53).
Wikipedia - Mécanisme de Jansen.
Exergia - Simulation von Theo Jansen's Strandbeest.
Giesbrecht Daniel - Design and optimisation of a one-degree-offreedom eight-bar leg mechanism for a walking machine.

2.4. Optic illusions

Luminous paintings by Bardula
Picture Luminous paintings by Bardula - Blue Interferences Picture Luminous paintings by Bardula - Blue ice

Bardula is a pseudonym created by a Belgian artist who currently lives and works in France.
Bardula creates luminous paintings including the hypnotic paintings "Blue Interferences" and "Blue ice" (see Figures 1 and 2 above).

Sources :
Light ZOOM Lumière.

Motion illusions
Picture Motion illusions 1     Picture Motion illusions 2     Picture Motion illusions 3

Picture Motion illusions 4     Picture Motion illusions 5     Picture Motion illusions 6

Here is a selection of the best motion illusions (see above Figure 1 cf [GomboDigital], Figures 2 to 5 cf [Sélection.ca] and Figure 6 cf [Akiyoshi Kitaoka]) :
1. Rotating vortex (Vectordivider image via Getty Images)
2. Rotating spirals (Vectordivider image via Getty Images)
3. Mesmerizing effect (Mark Grenier image via Shutterstock)
4. Scroll (Guten Tag Vector image via Shutterstock)
5. Glitter Grid (Mark image via Shutterstock)
6. "Expanding pupils" (Image from Akiyoshi Kitaoka)

Sources :
Sélection du Reader's Digest (Canada) - 24 illusions d'optique complètement étourdissantes.
GomboDigital - 5 illusions d'optique qui vont vous scotcher/.
Akiyoshi Kitaoka - Anomalous motion illusions 35.

2.5. Society

Consumer society
Picture Consumer society

Introduction :

The consumer society is a type of society within which consumers are encouraged to consume goods and services on a regular and abundant basis [JDN].
It appeared in Western countries from the second half of the 20th century, at the same time as some trends such as the women emancipation, industrial and technological innovation, globalization of trade.
The economy will then rely on the production capacities of companies as well as on the consumption capacities of citizens. It will increase the living standard of a large number of citizens in terms of comfort and material well-being, by increasing access to goods and services in volume and diversity.
But gradually a new paradigm is emerging : "consume more, to produce more, to earn more". Producers and consumers then mechanically become hyper-producers and hyper-consumers. The first ones offer an abundant supply based on products with a limited lifespan (Premature obsolescence). The seconds have demands that go well beyond their primary needs.

Results :

This situation, where producers and consumers are closely linked around the industry of "desire", has resulted in the following consequences on the individual and their environment :

1. On an information level, the media (press, edition, poster, radio, television, cinema, Internet network, telecommunications) broadcast to the consumer (reader, listener, spectator, Internet user) a mass of more or less accurate information, amplified by social networks and content sharing platforms.
Broadcast can take different forms :

2. On an audiovisual communication level, the media, whose concern is to preserve a market more than to ensure the civic education of the masses, become a source of sensory pollution and overstimulation of the senses to the detriment of useful information [BEN]. See Media violence.

3. On an ecological level, overconsumption encourages waste and the production of waste which pollutes, even if progress is made to recycle it as cleanly as possible.

4. On a nutritional level, overconsumption promotes the appearance of pathologies such as diabetes and obesity.

5. On a professional level, the perpetual creation of new needs can lead to over-indebtedness, overwork or insecurity.

6. On a psychological level, the search for "always more" can lead to continual frustration which generates discomfort, depressive and even aggressive behavior.

7. On a social level, the human being has also become a "product" who must "know how to sell himself", who must enter into "competition", "at war" with everyone and others.

8. On a moral level, consumer objects become ends in themselves leading to a loss of "true purpose".

9. On the human level, social relations become simple means and are therefore artificial. We must then differentiate ourselves from others, in particular by impressing others with symbols of wealth and power to the detriment of the authenticity and depth of human relationships.

10. On a spiritual level, having replaces being, depth, introspection, reflection on identity based on something other than possessions [GUI].

Conclusions :

Today the consumer society, which has become a society of overconsumption, is beginning to move towards a society of deconsumption along four axes :

1. Individual sufficiency which consists of consuming less and differently, favoring quality rather than quantity.
To be applicable at the level of each consumer, this sobriety must be "happy", that is to say without the idea of restriction or sacrifice. Examples : second-hand purchase, recourse to repair, return to essential needs.
This trend would be driven in France by the elderly (with fewer needs), women (attracted towards ecology) and the most qualified (attracted towards a form of daily asceticism) [GOL][CAS].

2. Collaborative economy based on the sharing or exchange between individuals of goods (car, housing, parking, drill, etc.), services (passenger transport, DIY, etc.) or knowledge (computer courses, communities of learning, etc.), with or without monetary exchange, with or without digital networking platform.
By reducing or even eliminating intermediaries, this economic system allows you to moderate your expenses and save money.

3. Circular economy focused on a sustainable strategy which consists of sharing, reusing, repairing, renovating and recycling products and materials for as long as possible so that they retain their value.
In France, we can cite the following examples :

4. Waste management which consists of collecting it and then transforming it, prioritizing in order: reuse, recycling, elimination [MTE].

In France, in 2018, 66 % of treated waste is recycled, 7 % is incinerated with or without energy recovery and 27 % is landfilled [NOT].

Sources relating to consumer society :
[ADE1] ADEME, Economie circulaire : notions, 2013.
[ADE2] ADEME, Potentiels d'expansion de la consommation collaborative pour réduire les impacts environnementaux, 2016.
[AGE] Agence Lucie, L'économie circulaire.
[ALT] Altermaker, Economie circulaire : définition et exemple.
[BEN] Abdellatif Bensfia, "François HEINDERYCKX (2003), La malinformation. Plaidoyer pour une refondation de l'information", Communication, Vol. 23/2 | 2005, 259-265..
[CAS] Jean-Laurent Cassely, Les diplômés, bons élèves ou cancres de l'alterconsommation ?, in Constructif, juin 2021 (N59).
[CHI] Chilowé, Comment vivre la sobriété heureuse au quotidien ?.
[DES] Cécile Désaunay, Vers la déconsommation ?, in Constructif, juin 2021 (N 59).
[GOL] Mathilde Golla, La société de déconsommation commence à faire son chemin, Novethic.
[GUI] Valérie Guillard, La société de consommation, cours PSL Paris-Dauphine.
[IMP] impots.gouv.fr, Economie collaborative et plateformes numériques.
[JDN] JDN - Journal du Net, Consommation : définition simple.
[MAR] Margaux, Société d'hyperconsommation : comment en sommes-nous arrivés là ? Comment changer demain ?, Suricates Consulting.
[ODI] ODI - Observatoire de la Déontologie et de l'Information, L'information au coeur de la démocratie - Rapport Annuel 2017.
[RUM] Yannick Rumpala, Quelle place pour une "sobriété heureuse" ou un "hédonisme de la modération" dans un monde de consommateurs ?, in Dans L'Homme & la Société 2018/3 (n 208), pages 223 à 248.
[TOU] La Toupie, Toupictionnaire.
[WIK1] Wikipedia, Société de consommation.

Sources relating to waste management :
[ADE3] ADEME, Déchets chiffres-clés - Edition 2023.
[MTE] Ministère de la transition écologique et de la cohésion des territoires, Traitement des déchets.
[NOT] notre-environnement, Le traitement des déchets.
[REC] Recygo, Poubelles de tri sélectif, comprendre les codes couleurs.
[SEN1] Sénat, Les nouvelles techniques de recyclage et de valorisation des déchets ménagers et des déchets industriels banals.

Media violence
Picture Media violence

Introduction :

In a society of excessive consumption there is commodification of the whole of society. Information becomes a commodity, subject to the laws of the market and competition, just like television programs, cinema, film producers, the media.
To capture the audience, the media have different means such as sensationalism, controversy, fake news. Violence is also one of these means, hence the media violence which is, by definition, human violence shown or suggested by media. It can be verbal, physical, sexual or psychological.

Human violence :

The animal does not seek to kill or cause suffering. It kills to feed, reproduce or defend its territory. It is neither peaceful nor cruel and never acts excessively [GAN].
The human being is also an animal, but an animal of excess. It is distinguished from animals by the anatomical and functional importance of its brain [GAN], in particular the neocortex devoted to thought, imagination and anticipation, which allows it to explore and exploit an increasingly extensive environment.
Since the beginning of humanity, around two million years ago, human beings have been inventive with an exploring, manipulative, conquering and aggressive side. This fundamentally creative character tears him away from nature and makes him enter into excess and transgression. He then becomes ingenious in matters of violence, torture and horror, reinforced by his primitive animality in the form of celebration, sacrifice, cruelty and warlike orgy [GAN].
Today, modern man is no more violent than in the past. Wars have become increasingly deadly in the 20th century, but they are becoming rarer. Criminal violence has been on the decline since the 19th century. However, it appears worse than before because we approach criminal phenomena with different standards from those used in the past, being accustomed to increasingly broad security [GAN].
The reduction in violence is thus a massive and incontestable phenomenon. But there can be periods of relapse, setback, regression. Man is civilized but he does not change in depth. The impulses, the frustrations, the violent temptations remain [PIN].

Violence is a universal fact. Wisdom consists of accepting it rather than repressing it [GAN]. But wisdom also consists of discovering that all conflict is good as long as it reveals a truth, in particular that we are obliged to agree in order to live and that the conflict does not need to be violent for that [MIC].
Svâmiji said : "The animal is subject to nature. Man fights against nature. The wise man achieves unity with nature by accompanying it in its movement".

Results :

On human being, the effects of media violence are mainly those of violent images (bloodshed, beatings, torture, killings, bombings, road accidents, suicide, rape, etc.).
On this topic, more than 50 years of scientific research shows that prolonged exposure to violent images makes people more violent, increases the fear of becoming a victim themselves and reduces the feeling of sympathy towards victims of violence in real life [COU][WIK9].

On children and adolescents, the effects of media violence are as follows [CBS] :
- From 0 to 2 years : high vulnerability to sound effects (noises and screams).
- From 2 to 7 years : vulnerability to intense, trivialized, antisocial or gratuitous violence.
- From 7 to 12 years old : vulnerability to intense, trivialized, antisocial or intellectual violence.
- From 12 to 18 years old : vulnerability to antisocial or spiritual violence.
The most harmful programs for young people are violent films, including some cartoons, and realistic television news. The greatest impact is achieved by the association of violence with erotic images [KUC].

Also note [KUC] :
- The number of programs for young people, especially of good quality, seems insufficient (less than 10%), which encourages young people to watch programs for adults that are totally unsuitable for their age.
- Some boys with an aggressive character identify more easily with combative heroes whose behavior they reproduce in reality as well as in the fiction they have watched (mimetic effect).
- On American television, 20 to 25 violent acts per hour are broadcast in children's programs.
- On Canadian television, sexual relations between unmarried partners are shown 24 times more than those between spouses [NIH].

The following alphabetical list gives the main forms of media violence against human beings, ranging from simple annoyance to extreme violence.

Many people do not believe in the effects of media violence. There are six reasons for this [COU] :

Conclusions :

The remedy for media violence consists of finding a better balance between producers of violent images and consumers. This mainly involves the following actors [COU] :

Sources :
[ART] ARTE Radio, Prise de son : les 15 erreurs du débutant.
[BEN] Abdellatif Bensfia, "François HEINDERYCKX (2003), La malinformation. Plaidoyer pour une refondation de l'information", Communication, Vol. 23/2 | 2005, 259-265..
[BIL] Philippe Bilger, Pourquoi le son français est-il si mauvais ?.
[BOU] Marie-Claude Bourdon, Médias culture et violence.
[CBS] CBSC, Canadian Broadcast Standards Council, Classement des émissions en fonction de la violence - Guide de référence.
[CLE] CLEMI Le centre pour l'éducation aux médias et à l'information, Ecrans et violence.
[CNR] CNRTL, Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales, Sexisme.
[COU] Courbet D. & Fourquet-Courbet M.P. (2014), "L'influence des images violentes sur les comportements et sur le sentiment d'insécurité chez les enfants et les adultes", Rapport Technique de Recherches, Université d'Aix-Marseille, Institut de Recherche en Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication IRSIC.
[CSA] CSA - Conseil supérieur de l'Audiovisuel, Réflexion sur les émissions dites "de téléréalité".
[FLA] Jean-Yves Flament, Téléréalité et idéologie.
[FMV] Fondation Marie-Vincent, Qu'est-ce que la violence sexuelle ?.
[GAG] Christophe Gagne, "Un bon clash pour faire le buzz", Corela, 19-2 | 2021.
[GAN] René-François Gagnon, Cinq conceptions de la violence quotidienne, Mémoire 1999, Université Laval.
[GDC] Gouvernement du Canada, Ravaler sa douleur - Etude des liens entre l'anorexie, la boulimie et la violence contre les femmes et les filles.
[GDQ] Gouvernement du Québec, Le sexe dans les médias, Editions du Conseil du statut de la femme.
[GOU] Vincent Goulet, "Violence et médias", séances du Réseau Thématique n 37 "Médias" du 3e congrès de l'Association Française de Sociologie, Paris, 14-17 avril 2009.
[KUC] Corinne Kucharscki, Jean-Luc Saladin, Daniel Godefroy et Matthieu Blondet, La télévision nourrit la violence, Reporterre - Le média de l'écologie.
[LER] Pierre Leroux et Philippe Riutort, Intégrer les politiques aux divertissements.
[LOO] Joséphine Loock, Violence institutionnelle de l'administration publique.
[MAT] Philippe Mathieu, Pour une histoire et une esthétique de l'écran fragmenté au cinéma, Thèse 2010, Université de Montréal.
[MCC] Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, La violence à la télévision.
[MDT] Ministère du travail, La protection contre les discriminations.
[MIC] Yves Michaud, La violence apprivoisée.
[NIH] NIH, National Library of Medicine, Les répercussions de l'usage des médias sur les enfants et les adolescents.
[PAG] PagesJaunes/PagesConseil/Droit/, Atteinte à la dignité.
[PIN] Steve Pinker, La diminution de la violence dans le monde est un phénomène massif et incontestable, Libération.
[RFI] RFI, Les ados et le sexe sur internet : attention danger!.
[RIM] Pierre Rimbert, Interdire l'information en continu ?, Le Monde diplomatique.
[SEN2] Sénat, Enfants et publicité télévisuelle.
[SEN3] Sénat, L'audiovisuel à l'ère du numérique.
[SIX] Nicolas Six, Pourquoi les dialogues sont-ils parfois aussi inaudibles dans les films et les séries ?, Le Monde.
[TOU] La Toupie, Toupictionnaire.
[TRO] Pauline Trouillard, "Atteinte à la dignité humaine et autres contenus toxiques à la télévision française : le Conseil d'Etat a t-il ouvert la boîte de Pandore ?", La Revue des droits de l'homme, 24 | 2023.
[WIK2] Wikipedia, Cyberharcèlement.
[WIK3] Wikipedia, Perversion.
[WIK4] Wikipedia, Violence conjugale.
[WIK5] Wikipedia, Violence psychologique.
[WIK6] Wikipedia, Télé poubelle.
[WIK7] Wikipedia, Téléréalité.
[WIK8] Wikipedia, Violence policière.
[WIK9] Wikipedia, Education parentale.
[WIK10] Wikipedia, Entertainment Software Rating Board.
[YAP] yapaka.be, Les images violentes ne sont pas nécessairement celles que l'on croit.

Planned obsolescence and consumer products
Picture Consumer products

Current or durable consumer products offered on the markets do not always have the expected quality. The main causes are the following :

1. "Construction" defect of the product
Three types of fault exist :

In France nearly 10 % of electronic devices purchased on the Internet are returned due to non-compliance.
For domestic electrical devices, the faulty component is often the electronic block of the device (examples : freezer, steam iron, thermal resistance of towel dryers, lighting of bathroom cabinets with touch control, outdoor solar light garland, DVD player).

2. Non-optimal user manual
The product user manuel is sometimes succinct, poorly structured, roughly translated into French or written only in English, which does not allow consumers to use the product easily and appropriately.

3. Non-optimal consumer service
Access to consumer service is not always easy (examples : unclear access methods, premium rate telephone number, unspecified waiting time).
Furthermore, the processing of requests and complaints is sometimes disconcerting or even flawed, with some operators not always having sufficient training in the products and services in the catalog, in internal procedures and in IT tools.

4. Premature and planned obsolescence of the product
Planned obsolescence is a market practice justified by manufacturers for economic (see Consumer society), technical and risk prevention reasons. The consumer suffers the consequences : he is frustrated when he notices that the effective lifespan of his product does not correspond to the lifespan he expects.
But the causes of obsolescence are not only linked to the producer. They may occur during sale, distribution or consumption. This is why we speak more widely of premature obsolescence.
Different types of premature obsolescence can shorten the life of consumer products [CLI][HIP] :

France is the first country in the world to have criminalized planned obsolescence through article L. 441-2 of the Consumer Code dated March 14, 2016.
Law n 2021-1485 of November 15, 2021 relating to the reduction of the digital environmental footprint in France (REEN law) then modified this article by redefining the offense as follows : "The practice of planned obsolescence is prohibited which is defined by the use of techniques, including software, by which the person responsible for placing a product on the market aims to deliberately reduce its lifespan".
Warning : there may be "obsolescence" without it being planned. It is up to the consumer to provide proof of the voluntary intention of the manufacturer to reduce the life of the product : difficult or even impossible task.

One of the solutions aimed at combating planned obsolescence is the services rental. Instead of owning a good, we would pay for the service rendered. Companies would then benefit from manufacturing durable and easily repairable goods (example : Xerox in the professional photocopier market) [WIK].

Sources :
[HIP] HIPPOCAMPE, Usages numériques et terminaux.
[CLI] LE CLIMATOSCOPE, L'obsolescence prématurée de nos produits de consommation : un débat à remodeler.
[WIK] WIKIPEDIA, Obsolescence programmée.

2.6. Science and technology

Climat change
Picture Climat change over the past 2000 years    Picture Climat change over the past 150 years

Left Figure : evolution of the global average annual temperature of the earth's surface from year 1 to 2019, relative to the pre-industrial reference (1850-1900) [HAW].

Right Figure : evolution of the global average annual temperature of the earth's surface from 1850 to 2020, relative to the pre-industrial reference (1850-1900) [MTE3]. The connected dots show the data year by year while the solid black curve is a rolling average of the annual totals over 11 years (average of years N-5 to N+5 for year N).

Introduction :

Climate change, also called "global warming", is the significant increase in the average temperature of the earth's surface since the beginning of the 20th century.
Be careful not to confuse "climate" and "weather". Weather refers to the weather over a short period (a day, a week). Climate refers to past and future time over long periods (year, century, millennium).

The graph above in left Figure shows that this increase (from 1900 to 2019) is unprecedented in the last 2000 years. The graph is a reconstruction including data from a wide variety of records such as tree rings, cave deposits, corals, etc. Added some relevant world events such as major volcanic eruptions, the Maunder Solar Minimum and historical dates of scientific discoveries. The oft-cited Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age are real phenomena, but small compared to recent changes [HAW].
The graph above in right Figure shows that the decade 2011-2020 was 1.1 C warmer than the pre-industrial reference (1850-1900), with warming being greater on the continents (+1.6 C) than in above the oceans (+0.9 C) [TSP][GIE][MTE3].

The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) is a scientific body created in 1988, responsible for assessing the extent, causes and consequences of ongoing climate change.
The IPCC position confirms this warming and attributes it unequivocally to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of human origin, called "additional or additive or anthropogenic greenhouse effect" [WIK1].
A very broad scientific consensus endorses the IPCC position and agrees that solar irradiation is not the cause of climate change for two reasons [NAS1][NAS2] :
- Since the beginning of the 20th century, the average amount of solar energy received by the Earth has remained constant within 0.1 % [BLA] ;
- If the Sun were responsible for global warming, this warming would act in all layers of the atmosphere, from the surface to the upper atmosphere (stratosphere). However, the observations instead show warming at the surface and cooling in the stratosphere, which is consistent with the fact that the warming is caused by an accumulation of heat-trapping gases near the Earth's surface.

Some people, called "climate skeptics", express denial of global warming and are divided into four main trends [WIK7] :
1. those who deny global warming ;
2. those who admit global warming but deny its human origin ;
3. those who admit global warming but deny its impacts ;
4. those who have no opinion on global warming but deny the scientific consensus on the topic.
In the United States, these positions of denial, sometimes violent, are mainly held by "skeptical bloggers", supporters of conservative economic policies, industrialists opposed to the taxation of CO2 emissions and some groups funded by the tobacco and fossil fuel industries.
In France, in 2022, 37 % of people consider themselves climate skeptics, including 8 % belonging to trend no. 1 [FJJ]. The motivations are varied :
- Incongruity : for some people, mainly from the working classes, the "end of the month" often supplants the "end of the world" [ZEK].
- Embarrassment : some people doubt in good faith, often through ignorance of the facts or on the contrary by "drowning" in the multitude of facts.
- Distrust : some people do not have confidence in intellectual elites (leaders, politicians, scientists, media, etc.).
- Fear : for others, denial is a safe haven, a form of protective instinct that allows them to avoid facing facts and preserve a way of life that they refuse to lose in current society consumption [REP2].
- Legitimacy : for still others, denial is a way of rejecting science in order to assert one's social or political identity.

Greenhouse gas :

The Earth constantly receives energy from the sun in the form of visible light. 30 % is reflected by the atmosphere and the earth's surface, 20 % is absorbed by ozone and water vapor in the atmosphere, 50 % is absorbed by the earth's surface which heats up and emits infrared radiation from all the more intense as the surfaces are hot.
10 % of this radiation is emitted towards the universe, 90 % is absorbed by some gases called "greenhouse gases" and partly reradiated towards the surface, thereby slowing the loss of heat into space and causing global warming.
The Earth thus maintains an average temperature of +15 C by a natural balance between the energy of the sun absorbed and that re-emitted in the form of infrared radiation. Without these gases, the average temperature on Earth would be -18 C, and life as we know it would become impossible [NAS1][MTE1][DUF][WIK2][WIK3].
Since the beginning of the 20th century, man has considerably increased the quantity of greenhouse gases naturally present in the atmosphere, thus modifying the climatic balance through an additional greenhouse effect [MTE1].

These gases are essentially made up of the following elements [NAS1][WIK1][DUF][CDE][FRA1][ADT][CAR][BEN] :

In summary, according to these figures, global warming of human origin (additional greenhouse effect) is mainly due to fossil fuels (47 %), deforestation (20 %) and agriculture (25 %).

In France, the transport sector constitutes the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions, accounting for 30 % of national emissions.
Over the entire life cycle of vehicles (extraction and processing of raw materials, manufacturing, transportation and use of the vehicle), these emissions are attributable as follows : passenger cars (53 %), heavy goods vehicles (27 %), utility vehicles light (15 %), air transport (3 %) and other modes of transport (2 % : two-wheelers, rail and maritime) [GRE].

Carbon footprint :

The carbon footprint (or GHG balance) of a product, a person, a company, a sector of activity or a territory is a measure of the cumulative quantity of all greenhouse gas emissions that can be attributed to it. This measure can be evaluated according to two conventions :
    - either in direct emissions due to the use of energy by the final consumer ;
    - either in life cycle analysis taking into account emissions due to the use of energy but also indirect emissions due to all upstream energy transformations (research and development, production, transport, distribution ), or even downstream (recycling, dismantling) [WIK4].
Example of carbon footprint for different modes of transport (in CO2 equivalent per passenger over 100 km) : plane (20 kg), motorcycle (19 kg), gasoline car (15 kg), diesel car (14 kg), electric car (10 kg), coach (3 kg), TGV (0.2 kg) [SEL].
For a greenhouse gas, its contribution to the greenhouse effect is measured by its Global Warming Potential (GWP) defined as the radiative forcing (i.e. the radiative power that the gas returns to the ground), accumulated over a reference period of 100 years and measured relative to the same mass of CO2.
The GWP is 1 for CO2 ; 8 for water vapor ; 30 for CH4 ; 300 for N2O ; 700 to 15,000 for CFC, HFC and PFC ; 17,000 for the NF3 ; 25,000 for SF6.
The carbon footprint of gas is then expressed in grams of CO2 equivalent per kilowatt-hour (gCO2eq/kWh) corresponding to the product of the mass of gas (mog) by its Global Warming Potential (GWP).
The carbon footprint of gas is sometimes also expressed by a Carbon Equivalent (CE) which only measures the mass of carbon (C) contained in the CO2 emitted. We then have the relationship : CE = 0.2727 x mog x PRG

The Bilan Carbone is a method of calculating the carbon footprint according to three distinct scopes of emissions (direct induced by the combustion of fossil fuels, indirect induced by energy consumption, indirect other).
It takes into account the six greenhouse gases designated by the Kyoto Protocol (CO2, CH4, N2O, hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)), as well as trifluoride nitrogen (NF3), and water vapor in the case of air transport [WIK5].

The ecological footprint (or environmental footprint) covers a broader spectrum and consists of estimating the quantity of land and water necessary for an individual or population to meet its needs without depleting natural resources or disrupting the ecosystem.
More than half of the French ecological footprint is due to the carbon footprint [WIK6].

Impacts :

The main effect of global warming is [NAT1] :

By the end of the century, if GHG emissions follow their current trajectory without additional climate policy and with high population growth (IPCC SSP3-7.0 scenario), warming will be +4 C with sea levels rising 1 m relative to the pre-industrial reference (1850-1900) [MTE4].
In this probable scenario, particularly if States engage in regional or global conflicts to the detriment of international climate policies, the IPCC identifies several key risks for Europe, which directly concern France [RCA1] :

Solutions :

The fight against climate change relies on two levers :

The recommended solutions are as follows [RCA2] [MTE2][MTE3] :

Sources :
[ADT] Académie des technologies, Le méthane - d'où vient-il et quel est son impact sur le climat ?.
[AMB] Valentine Ambert, Va-t-on manquer d'eau ?, Youmatter.
[BEN] Marc Benoît, Pollutions agricoles, CNRS Editions.
[BLA] Guillaume Blanc, Le réchauffement climatique.
[CAR] Carbone4, L'ozone des basses altitudes, une épée à double tranchant.
[CCE] Cour des Comptes Européenne, Lutte contre la désertification dans l'UE : le phénomène s'aggravant, de nouvelles mesures s'imposent.
[CDE] CDE - Connaissance des Energies, Gaz à effet de serre : d'où proviennent les émissions de méthane ?.
[DEL] Céline Deluzarche, Pourquoi manque-t-on de plus en plus d'eau alors que les pluies augmentent ?, Futura.
[DUF] Jean-Louis Dufresne, L'effet de serre, Planet Terre.
[FJJ] Fondation Jean Jaurès, Climatoscepticisme : Le nouvel horizon du populisme français.
[FRA1] Franceinfo, COP26 : on vous explique ce qu'est le méthane, l'autre gaz à effet de serre qui réchauffe le climat.
[FRA2] Franceinfo, Changement climatique : on vous explique pourquoi sécheresse et inondations sont parfois liées.
[GIE] GIEC, Synthèse du rapport AR6 du GIEC publié le 27/03/2023.
[GRE] Greenly, Les transports, premier secteur émetteur en France.
[IDV] idverde, Comment réduire les risques de pénurie d'eau ?.
[LAR] Larousse, Désertification.
[MEF1] Meteo France, Climat HD.
[MEF2] Meteo France, Tempêtes en France métropolitaine.
[MTE1] Ministère de la transition écologique et de la cohésion des territoires, Pourquoi la Terre chauffe ? 14 septembre 2018.
[MTE2] Ministère de la transition écologique et de la cohésion des territoires, Dossier de presse - 1er Plan national d'adaptation au changement climatique, 20 juillet 2011.
[MTE3] Ministère de la transition écologique et de la cohésion des territoires, Observations du changement climatique.
[MTE4] Chiffres clés du climat - France, Europe et Monde (décembre 2022).
[NAS1] NASA, Les causes du changement climatique.
[NAS2] NASA, Le Soleil est-il à l'origine du réchauffement climatique ?.
[NAT1] Nations Unis, Causes du changement climatique.
[NAT2] Nations Unis, L'eau - au coeur de la crise climatique.
[ONE] ONERC, Les évènements météorologiques extrêmes dans un contexte de changement climatique.
[RCA1] Réseau Climat Action France, 6e rapport du GIEC : quelles sont les conséquences réelles du changement climatique ? 28-02-2022.
[RCA2] Réseau Climat Action France, Synthèse du 6e rapport du GIEC : l'urgence climatique est là, les solutions aussi, 20-03-2023.
[RCA3] Réseau Climat Action France, 6e rapport du GIEC : quelles solutions face au changement climatique ? 04-04-2022.
[REP1] Reporterre, Le réchauffement des sous-sols, une "menace silencieuse".
[REP2] Reporterre, Déni de réalité : pourquoi le climatoscepticisme progresse.
[ROY] Florentin Roy, Les forêts en Méditerranée vont-elles disparaître ?, Youmatter.
[SEL] Selectra, Empreinte Carbone : calcul, définition et conseils de réduction.
[SEN] Sénat, Adapter la France aux dérèglements climatiques à l'horizon 2050 : urgence déclarée.
[TSP] The Shift Project, Climat : synthèse vulgarisée du 6ème rapport du GIEC (mars 2023).
[WIK1] Wikipedia, Gaz à effet de serre.
[WIK2] Wikipedia, Effet de serre.
[WIK3] Wikipedia, Changement climatique.
[WIK4] Wikipedia, Empreinte carbone.
[WIK5] Wikipedia, Bilan carbone.
[WIK6] Wikipedia, Empreinte écologique.
[WIK7] Wikipedia, Déni du réchauffement climatique.
[WIK8] Wikipedia, Elévation du niveau de la mer.
[ZEK] Marie Zekri, 37 % des Français se considèrent climato-sceptiques, National Geographic.

Scientific approach and systemic modeling
Picture Scientific approach

The scientific approach consists mainly of six steps :
    1. Observation and measurement of a phenomenon ;
    2. Systemic modeling and formulation of the simplest theory correctly accounting for all the observed facts ;
    3. Experimentation and validation of the theory ;
    4. Comparison with existing theories ;
    5. Communication of the results obtained to his peers for revalidations and possible criticisms ;
    6. Use of the theory to predict or reproduce the phenomenon.
Warning : Any criticism must be constructive to be admissible, that is to say be factual, without value judgment and without ironic or disrespectful remarks, in short, be worthy of the critic.

The systemic modeling is a stage of the scientific approach which consists in describing physical phenomena in the form of systems. The challenge is to find the right level of model : neither too simple to take into account all the physical observations, nor too complex to set the model parameters from these observations.
Systemic modeling also aims to divide systems into subsystems in an optimal way according to four main principles of systemes urban planning :

1. "Divide to conquer" or modularity principle. The goal is to cut the system into subsystems of optimal size and each having its autonomy of exploitation and use.
The temporary unavailability of a subsystem does not prevent the other subsystems from operating.

2. "Group to simplify" or subsidiarity principle. The goal is to pool what can be pooled and to treat each specificity as a differential with respect to the general case.
Complexity is isolated in easily manageable special case subsystems and does not put generic subsystems at risk.

3. "Distribute to better communicate" or reducing adhesions principle. The goal is to minimize the adhesions between subsystems and to compensate by a dynamic cooperation between them.
The data exchanged between subsystems are only created and modified in a single subsystem (notion of proprietary subsystem).
The information exchanges between subsystems are done via standardized interfaces.

4. "Start small but think big" or progressiveness principle. The goal is to provide for an evolution of the system in stages and starting from the existing one.

Digital optical disk (CD, DVD and BD)
Picture Digital optical disk

Definition :
The Digital Optical Disk (DON) is a removable flat disk used to store digital data in the fields of computers, audio and video.
The best known disks are CD, DVD and BD :

The acronym CD, DVD or BD is followed by the burning mode : ROM (Read-Only Memory) for read-only disk, ±R (Recordable) for disk that can only be written to once, ±RW (Rewritable) or ±RE for rewritable disk.
The acronym ± of burning mode corresponds to two different DVD standards, the old players not being compatible with the + standard which is more recent.

Constitution :
A digital optical disk is a stack of several layers (see Figure above) :

Data is written in the base layer for ROM, in the dye layer for ±R and in the reflective layer for ±RW, on a spiral-shaped track that is almost 5 km long for disks CD, from the center outwards.
Optical reading is binary (0 or 1). The information is made up of micro-pits and lands. Any state change (land to micro-pit or vice versa) is translated by a '1', and all the lengths of lands and micro-pits by '0'.

Lifetime :
The objective lifetime of a digital optical disk ranges from 2 years to 20 years, and sometimes longer if all precautions are taken. It strongly depends on the choice of media, the use conditions and the storage conditions of the disk.

1. Choice of media :

2. Use :

3. Conservation :

Sources :
Wikipedia - Disque Compact.
Wikipedia - DVD.
Wikipedia - Disque Blu-ray.
Level - Quelles sont les différences entre un CD et un DVD ?.
Infobidouille - La question technique 6 : CD, DVD, BLU-RAY, RW... Comment ça marche les supports optiques ?.
FISTON production - Inquiétudes sur la durée de vie des DVD enregistrables.
Maxicours - Stockage optique.
expert multimedia - Caractéristiques techniques d'un DVD.
Chaumette O., AGIR/PHYSIQUE/CHAP 20 - Le principe de la lecture d'un disque optique (CD, DVD, BluRay...).
Gouvernement du Canada - Durabilité des CD, des DVD et des disques Blu-ray inscriptibles.
Centre de conservation du Québec - Critères de choix d'un disque optique, guide d'entretien et de manipulation.
SOSORDINATEURS - Quelle est la durée de conservation des CD, DVD et Blu-Ray.
VERBATIM - Les différences significatives de performance entre les couches réfléchissantes en argent et en aluminium soulignent l'importance de savoir ce que vous achetez.
Que Choisir - Durée de vie des DVD - Conseils.
Ballajack - Durée de vie d'un CD ou DVD gravé, comment les conserver ?.

2.7. Heritage of Gers Lomagne

image Patrimoine de la Lomagne gersoise

The following files describe the monumental and architectural heritage of 139 municipalities located less than 20 km from the towns of Lectoure or Condom in Gers (France), and including Gers Lomagne and its surroundings.

List of municipalities :
The municipalities are listed alphabetically, each followed by the department number: Gers (32 by default), Lot-et-Garonne (47), Tarn-et-Garonne (82).
Each pdf file weighs approximately 500 KB, the heaviest being Lectoure (3.3 MB).

Sources :
- Wikipedia, Descriptif de chaque commune dont département, toponymie, histoire, maire, nombre d'habitants, altitude, lieux et monuments.
- Ministère de la Culture, Immeubles protégés au titre des Monuments Historiques, par département et par commune. N'inclut pas les sites protégés.
- Ministères Ecologie Energie Territoires, Liste des servitudes des sites et monuments du Gers jusque janvier 2015, par commune et incluant la protection des sites et des monuments au titre des Monuments Historiques.
- SDAP renommé STAP (Services Territoriaux de l'Architecture et du Patrimoine), Liste des monuments historiques et des sites du Lot-et-Garonne, par commune et jusqu'en 2006.
- DREAL Midi-Pyrénées (Direction Régionale de l'Environnement, de l'Aménagement et du Logement Midi-Pyrénées), Bilan des sites classés et inscrits du Tarn-et-Garonne, avril 2013, par commune.
- Ministère de la Culture, Base Mérimée du patrimoine monumental français, par commune et par monument incluant date d'origine, lieu, descriptif et propriété.
- Comet Anaïs Villages et bourgs de la Gascogne gersoise à la fin du Moyen Age (1250-1550), par commune, Thèse d'histoire, 2017, Volume 1 : Synthèse (405 p), Volume 2 : Figures (442 p), Volume 3 : Notices (680 p), Volume 4 : Atlas (391 p).
- Google, Recherche par commune (histoire, origine du nom, bastide, castelnau, castrum, fortification, rempart, château, fossé, vestige) ou par monument (protection récente des monuments et des sites au titre des Monuments Historiques)
- Google Images et Google Vidéos, Recherche par commune (monument, "carte postale", vidéo Youtube).
- IGN (Institut Géographique National, renommé Institut National de l'information Géographique et forestière), Géoportail, par commune (situation graphique des lieux-dits et des rues).
- Google, Google Maps, par commune (situation GPS des lieux-dits, rues principales, photos par Street View).
- Google, Recherche par commune (cadrans solaires, moulins, pigeonniers, puits, fontaines, lavoirs).
- Mapio, Photos d'internautes avec titre et géolocalisation précise. Recherche par Région, Département, Arrondissement, Commune.

2.8. The life laws

A small number of truth seekers, notably Svâmi Prajnânpad, have simply described the laws of life as follows (from the book [Petit Régis, Une approche scientifique du silence]).

  1. Definitions
  2. Law of difference
  3. Law of change
  4. Law of causality
  5. Law of the psyche
  6. The life purpose
  7. Silence and fullness
  8. To love
  9. To desire
  10. To act
  11. To live in society
  12. To give
  13. To help others
  14. To die
  15. Sources

1. Definitions

* Svâmi Prajnânpad, the truth, emotion / feeling, to think / to see

Svâmi Prajnânpad (alias Svâmiji, 1891-1974) was a Bengali Brahmin who had received dual training, classical Vedantic and modern scientific trainings.
A master of wisdom and lucidity, his rigorous approach is a dive into the heart of the unconscious which reveals the difficulties hindering the silence of mental. No God, no ritual, no paradise.
André Comte-Sponville said about him : "This master is content to see, to be one with what he indifferently calls truth or reality, which is neutral, neither good nor bad, neither pleasant nor painful, and promised only change or death." [PDS 2]
According to the specific vocabulary of his teaching [EHM 1] :

* Inner peace, truth, science

* Ego, attachment, mental, identification

* Thought, emotion, desire

* To be

* Spirituality

2. Law of difference : Every thing is different and unique
Picture The life laws - Difference

3. Law of change : Everything that comes goes away
Picture The life laws - Change

4. Law of causality : For every effect there is a cause
Picture The life laws - Causality

5. Law of the psyche : The mental creates a "second", the truth is "one without a second"
Picture The life laws - The mental creates a second

6. The life purpose
Picture The life laws - The life purpose

7. Silence and fullness
Picture The life laws - Silence and fullness

8. To love
Picture The life laws - To love

9. To desire
Picture The life laws - To desire

10. To act
Picture The life laws - To act

11. To live in society
Picture The life laws - To live in society

12. To give
Picture The life laws - To give

13. To help others
Picture The life laws - To help others

14. To die
Picture The life laws - To die

15. Sources

[ARI 1] Association pour le Rayonnement Culturel Indien, Citation de Mata Amritanandamayi, La Lettre N3 de l'ARCI, 2ème trimestre 1987
[BTC 1] Bouchet Christian, Gurdjieff - qui suis-je, Pards 2001
[CSA 1] Comte-Sponville André, De l'autre côté du désespoir - Introduction à la pensée de Svâmi Prajnânpad, Accarias-L'Originel 1997
[CSO 1] Cambessédès Olivier, Le quotidien avec un maître Svami Prajnanpad, Accarias L'Originel 1995
[DAF 1] Desjardins Arnaud et Farcet Gilles, Confidences impersonnelles, Critrion 1991
[DAF 2] Desjardins Arnaud et Farcet Gilles, Regards sages sur un monde fou, La Table Ronde 1997
[DAL 3] Desjardins Arnaud et Loiseleur-Desjardins Véronique, La voie et ses pièges, La Table Ronde 1992
[DAL 4] Desjardins Arnaud et Loiseleur-Desjardins Véronique, L'ami spirituel, La Table Ronde 1996
[DEA 1] Delaye Alain, Sagesses concordantes - Quatre maîtres pour notre temps : Etty Hillesum, Vilama Thakar, Svâmi Prajnânpad, Krishnamurti, Volume I, Accarias-L'Originel 2003, 2011
[DSA 7] Desjardins Arnaud, A la recherche du Soi 1 - Adhyatma yoga, La Table Ronde 1977
[DSA 8] Desjardins Arnaud, A la recherche du Soi 2 - Le vedanta et l'inconscient, La Table Ronde 1978
[DSA 9] Desjardins Arnaud, A la recherche du Soi 3 - Au-delà du moi, La Table Ronde 1979
[DSA 10] Desjardins Arnaud, A la recherche du Soi 4 - Tu es cela, La Table Ronde 1980
[DSA 15] Desjardins Arnaud, La voie du coeur, La Table Ronde 1987
[DSA 17] Desjardins Arnaud, Zen et Vedanta - Commentaire du Sin sin ming, La Table Ronde 1995
[DSA 19] Desjardins Arnaud, Retour à l'essentiel, La Table Ronde 2002
[DSA 21] Desjardins Arnaud, Bienvenue sur la voie, La Table Ronde 2005
[DSA 23] Desjardins Arnaud, Lettres à une jeune disciple, La Table Ronde 2006
[DSD 1] Desjardins Denise, De naissance en naissance, La Table Ronde 1977
[DSD 3] Desjardins Denise, Mère sainte et courtisane, La Table Ronde 1983
[DSD 7] Desjardins Denise, La route et le chemin - Carnet de voyage et d'ascèse, La Table Ronde 1995
[DSD 9] Desjardins Denise, Conteurs, Saints et Sages - Des Pères du désert à Swâmi Prajnânpad, La Table Ronde 1998
[DSD 10] Desjardins Denise, Petit traité de l'action, La Table Ronde 1999
[EHM 1] Edelmann Eric, Humbert Olivier et Dr Massin Christophe, Swâmi Prajnânpad et les lyings, La Table Ronde 2000
[FTG 1] Farcet Gilles, Arnaud Desjardins ou l'aventure de la sagesse, La Table Ronde 1987
[FTG 3] Farcet Gilles, La transmission selon Arnaud Desjardins, Le Relié 2009
[GKG 1] Guéshé Kelsang Gyatso, Vivre une vie pleine de sens - Mourir dans la joie, Tharpa France 2017
[GKG 2] Guéshé Kelsang Gyatso, Transformez votre vie. Un voyage plein de félicité, Tharpa France 2009
[LRF 1] Leboyer Frédérick, Portrait d'un homme remarquable - Svami Prajnanpad, Critérion 1991
[LRV 1] Loiseleur-Desjardins Véronique, Anthologie de la non dualité, La Table Ronde 1981
[MRD 1] Marol et Roumanoff Daniel, Sois sage, La Table Ronde 1994
[NIL 1] Nduwumwami Louis, Krishnamurti et l'éducation, Du Rocher 1991
[OPD 1] Ouspensky Petr Demianovitch, L'homme et son évolution possible, Denoël 1961 puis Accarias L'Originel 1999
[OPD 2] Ouspensky Petr Demianovitch, Fragments d'un enseignement inconnu, Stock 1974
[PDS 1] Prajnanpad Svami, L'art de voir, Lettres à ses disciples - Tome 1, Traduction de Colette et Daniel Roumanoff, Accarias-L'Originel 1988
[PDS 2] Prajnanpad Svami, Les yeux ouverts, Lettres à ses disciples - Tome 2, Traduction de Colette et Daniel Roumanoff, Accarias-L'Originel 1989
[PDS 3] Prajnanpad Svami, La vérité du bonheur, Lettres à ses disciples - Tome 3, Traduction de Colette et Daniel Roumanoff, Accarias L'Originel 1990
[PDS 4] Prajnanpad Svami, A B C d'une sagesse, Paroles choisies par Daniel Roumanoff, La Table Ronde 1998 puis Albin Michel 2009
[PDS 5] Prajnanpad Svami, L'éternel présent - Questions et réponses - Entretiens avec Pierre Wack, Traduction de Daniel Roumanoff, Accarias-L'Originel 2002
[PDS 6] Prajnanpad Svami, Les formules de Swâmi Prajnânpad commentées par Arnaud Desjardins, Formules et commentaires rassemblés par Véronique Desjardins, La Table Ronde 2003
[PDS 7] Prajnanpad Svami, Le but de la vie - Un été plein de sagesse, Entretiens avec Roland de QuatreBarbes été 1966, traduits par Daniel Roumanoff, Accarias-L'Originel 2005
[PDS 8] Prajnanpad Svami, Svâmi Prajnânpad pris au mot - Les Aphorismes, Recueillis et traduits par Frédérick Leboyer, Accarias-L'Originel 2006
[PDS 9] Prajnanpad Svami, Ceci Ici A présent - Seule et unique réalité, Entretiens avec Frédérick Leboyer (première série, janvier et février 1963), Traduction de Colette et Daniel Roumanoff, Accarias-L'Originel 2006
[PDS 10] Prajnanpad Svami, La connaissance de soi - Citations commentées des Upanishad et histoires (tome 1), Mises en forme par Daniel Roumanoff, Accarias-L'Originel 2008
[PSP 1] Prakash Sumangal et Prajnanpad Svami, L'expérience de l'unité, Traduction de Colette et Daniel Roumanoff, Accarias-L'Originel 1986 puis 2013
[RFD 1] Roumanoff Daniel, Svâmi Prajnânpad - Tome 1 Un maître contemporain - Manque et plénitude, La Table Ronde 1989, puis regroupé avec le Tome 3 chez Albin Michel 2009 sous le titre "Tome 1 Les lois de la vie"
[RFD 2] Roumanoff Daniel, Svâmi Prajnânpad - Tome 2 Le quotidien illuminé, La Table Ronde 1990, puis Albin Michel 2009
[RFD 3] Roumanoff Daniel, Svâmi Prajnânpad - Tome 3 Une synthèse Orient Occident, La Table Ronde 1991, puis regroupé avec le Tome 1 chez Albin Michel 2009 sous le titre "Tome 1 Les lois de la vie"
[RFD 4] Roumanoff Daniel, Candide au pays des Gourous - Journal d'un explorateur de l'Inde spirituelle, Dervy 1990
[RFD 5] Roumanoff Daniel, Svâmi Prajnânpad - Biographie, La Table Ronde 1993
[RFD 6] Roumanoff Daniel, Psychanalyse et sagesse orientale - Une lecture indienne de l'inconscient, Accarias L'Originel 1996
[SNR 1] Srinivasan Ramanuja, Entretiens avec Svami Prajnanpad, Traduction de Colette Roumanoff, Accarias-L'Originel 1984

3. Site map

This Web site contains 63 html pages.
The pages translated in English are preceded by a star.

  1. * Accueil/Contact  (Home/Contact)
  2. * Billard  (Billiards)
    1. * Théorie du jeu  (Theory of the Game)
    2. * La pratique du billard  (The Art of Billiards Play)
    3. * Bibliographie  (Bibliography)
    4. C'est du billard, reportage ARTE
  3. * Bélier hydraulique  (Hydraulic ram)
    1. Pages de Hervé de Baillenx
    2. Principe de fonctionnement
    3. Théorie
    4. Pratique
    5. Annexe
    6. Notations
    7. Glossaire
    8. * Bibliographie  (Bibliography)
    9. * Sommaire général  (Overall Table of contents)
  4. * Système Nerveux Humain  (Human Nervous System)
    1. Introduction
    2. Piaget
    3. Description fonctionnelle
    4. Glossaire
    5. * Bibliographie  (Bibliography)
    6. * Sommaire général  (Overall Table of contents)
  5. * Relativité  (Relativity)
  6. Botanique
    1. Liste des plantes ligneuses dont le nom commun commence par la lettre A
    2. Liste des plantes ligneuses dont le nom commun commence par la lettre B
    3. Liste des plantes ligneuses dont le nom commun commence par la lettre C
    4. Liste des plantes ligneuses dont le nom commun commence par la lettre D, E ou F
    5. Liste des plantes ligneuses dont le nom commun commence par la lettre G
    6. Liste des plantes ligneuses dont le nom commun commence par la lettre H, I, J, K ou L
    7. Liste des plantes ligneuses dont le nom commun commence par la lettre M, N ou O
    8. Liste des plantes ligneuses dont le nom commun commence par la lettre P
    9. Liste des plantes ligneuses dont le nom commun commence par la lettre Q, R ou S
    10. Liste des plantes ligneuses dont le nom commun commence par la lettre T, U, V, W, X, Y ou Z
  7. Musique
  8. Ornithologie
    1. Catalogue des oiseaux d'Europe dont le nom commun commence par la lettre A
    2. Catalogue des oiseaux d'Europe dont le nom commun commence par la lettre B
    3. Catalogue des oiseaux d'Europe dont le nom commun commence par la lettre C
    4. Catalogue des oiseaux d'Europe dont le nom commun commence par la lettre D, E ou F
    5. Catalogue des oiseaux d'Europe dont le nom commun commence par la lettre G
    6. Catalogue des oiseaux d'Europe dont le nom commun commence par la lettre H, I, J, K ou L
    7. Catalogue des oiseaux d'Europe dont le nom commun commence par la lettre M, N ou O
    8. Catalogue des oiseaux d'Europe dont le nom commun commence par la lettre P
    9. Catalogue des oiseaux d'Europe dont le nom commun commence par la lettre Q, R ou S
    10. Catalogue des oiseaux d'Europe dont le nom commun commence par la lettre T, U, V, W, X, Y ou Z
  9. Météorologie
  10. * Aide  (Help)
  11. * (Warning)

4. Design and Accessibility rules

At the time of last update of this page (see bottom of this page), all Web pages of this site have the following properties :
- they comply with W3C normes (HTML and CSS) ;
- they comply with Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 with Level AA conformance.

Design and Accessibility rules of this site :

  1. Web design
    1. Structuration du site en pages : selon une arborescence hiérarchique limitée à une profondeur de trois (règle des "trois clics").
    2. Version bilingue : version français/anglais de (presque) chaque page.
    3. Homogénéité des pages : même présentation et mêmes couleurs.
    4. Liens entre pages du site : depuis chaque page, accès a minima aux pages "Accueil/Contact", "Aide", ainsi qu'aux pages de type père, oncles, frères et fils.
    5. Page d'accueil : présentation simple, sur un seul écran, avec moteur de recherche interne.
  2. Web ergonomy (presentation and browsing)
    1. Page : présentation structurée verticalement selon Barre de menu puis Contenu puis Pied de page, et tenant horizontalement dans l'écran.
    2. Barre de menu : avec bouton "English/Français" de type bascule.
    3. Contenu d'une page : structuration linéaire selon titre (rappel de la page père), chapitre (nom de la page courante), sommaire local (uniquement si page longue), paragraphe, sous-paragraphe, sous-sous-paragraphe...
    4. Pied de page : avec mention du copyright, année de création, nom de l'auteur et date de dernière mise à jour de la page.
    5. Liens : (presque) tous commençant par une lettre majuscule, et de couleur différente selon le type de lien (non visité, visité, survolé, activé).
    6. Liens vers fichier téléchargeable : avec indication du type de fichier (.gif, .jpeg, ...) et de sa taille (en Ko ou Mo).
    7. Liens extra-page : avec texte court, explicite quant à la page destination.
    8. Liens intra-page : uniquement dans les pages longues.
    9. Liens "Précédent/Suivant" : uniquement entre chapitres, entre paragraphes et entre sous-paragraphes.
    10. Images porteuses d'information : avec texte alternatif (attribut "alt"), court et explicite quant à la fonction et à l'aspect.
    11. Plan de page : existe.
    12. Paragraphes : justifiés (à gauche et à droite) et indentés en première ligne.
    13. Typographie : aucun soulignement, ni texte en majuscule, et avec style "italique" uniquement dans des cas précis.
  3. Accessibility to sensory handicapped
    1. Changements de langue : indiqué systématiquement (attribut "lang" dans chaque objet de type tableau, liste, bloc (balise "span"), etc.).
    2. Objets multimédias (animation, vidéo, son) : ni clignotement, défilement ou mise à jour automatique d'information, ni image animée ou à zone réactive cliquable, ni fenêtre pop-up, ni son, ni listes déroulantes, ni boîtes de dialogue. Les boutons de désactivation des animations et du son sont en effet impossibles à trouver rapidement par un non-voyant.
    3. Couleurs (utilisation) : rien ne repose uniquement sur la couleur (indication d'une action, sollicitation d'une réponse, distinction d'un élément visuel).
    4. Couleurs (standardisation) : prises parmi les 16 couleurs de base du standard HTML 4.01 (voir tableau ci-dessous, avec Nom HTML, Nom français et Code hexadécimal selon la notation #RRVVBB).
    5. Couleurs (contraste) : contraste particulièrement adapté aux daltoniens déficients en vert (soit 80 % des daltoniens, ces derniers représentant 8 % des hommes et 0,5 % des femmes), selon les règles suivantes (voir tableau ci-dessous) :
         - Arrière-plan : sans motifs ni texte (donc fond uni) ; couleur "white" pour le fond de page ; couleurs "aqua", "silver" et "white" pour les fonds de menu ; couleurs "yelow" et "red" pour les fonds de lien (respectivement survolé et activé) situés en arrière-plan par rapport au texte de lien.
         - Premier plan : couleur "black" pour le texte de page ; couleur "blue" et "purple" pour les textes de lien (respectivement non visité et visité) ; couleur "yellow" et "red" pour les fonds de lien situés en premier plan par rapport au fond de page ou de menu.
    6. Police de caractères : sans empattements, ni embellissements, ni enluminures (police sans sérif).
    7. Images : suivies si nécessaire d'un équivalent textuel expliquant le contenu de l'image.
    8. Titres : balises "h1", "h2", "h3"... logiquement enchaînées et en cohérence avec la présentation des pages en titre, chapitre, paragraphe...
    9. Tableaux : avec résumé indiquant la fonction menu/données et le nombre de colonnes (attribut "summary"), avec en-têtes de colonnes (attribut "th"), avec si nécessaire correspondance entre cellule et colonne (attributs "id" et "headers").
    10. Listes : avec numérotation systématique.
    11. Formules mathématiques : écriture littérale, y compris les fonctions mathématiques (exemple : sin[x]).
    12. Clefs d'accès des raccourcis clavier : chiffres de 0 à 9 (dont les touches couramment utilisées : 0 Aide ; 1 Accueil).

    The following table gives the contrast between each foreground color (in lines) and each background color (in rows) for the 16 basic color from HTML 4.01
    This website uses only 24 contrasts indicated by the text "OUI", especially suited to green colorblind deficient.

    Nom HTMLblacknavybluegreenteallimeAQUAmaroonpurpleoliveGRAYSILVERREDfuchsiaYELLOWWHITE
    Nom françaisnoirbleu foncébleuvertbleu vertvert brillantcyanmarronvioletvert olivegris foncégris clairrougerosejauneblanc
    Code hexa0000000000800000FF00800000808000FF0000FFFF800000800080808000808080C0C0C0FF0000FF00FFFFFF00FFFFFF

  4. Html code
    1. Balises "!DOCTYPE", "html" et "head" : efficaces et en nombre restreint (pour les moteurs de recherche type Google).
    2. Feuille de style (.css, 3 Ko) : feuille externe unique avec attributs de taille redéfinis en relatif ("em" ou pourcentages) plutôt qu'en absolu (pixels).
    3. Balise "body" : avec attribut "bgcolor" en doublon de la feuille de style (pour compatibilité avec versions de code html inférieures à 3.2).
    4. Cadres (ou "frame") : aucun.
    5. Fenêtres secondaires : aucune.
    6. Liens javascript : aucun (hormis éventuel cassage du nom de domaine).
    7. Paragraphes : tous explicites (avec balise "p") afin de pouvoir jouer dessus avec la feuille de style.
    8. Mathematical symbols : coded in html when the code exists (examples : ≤ ∞ Δ ◊).
    9. Fichiers : nommage représentatif des deux premiers niveaux de la structure du site, sans blanc, ni caractère accentué (car problème sur serveurs Unix). Majuscules évitées au maximum.
    10. Temps d'accès aux pages : très court, avec quelques pages "pesant" au plus 100 Ko.

5. Partner schools and organizations

The following schools or organizations used this website :
Caption :
CPGE : Classes Préparatoires aux Grandes Ecoles
PFE : Projet de Fin d'Etude
TIPE : Travaux d'Initiative Personnelle Encadrée
TPE : Travaux Pratiques Encadrés

About the topic "Billiards physics" :

  1. Bordeaux, Lycée Michel Montaigne, TIPE : Le billard, Maxime Plottu, CPGE 2ème année, PSI*, 2024.
  2. Bourg-en-Bresse, Lycée Lalande, TIPE : Le billard, Mickaël Jacques, CPGE 2ème année, PC, 2012.
  3. Caen, Lycée Victor Hugo, TIPE : Le billard, Wilfried Lerot, CPGE 2ème année, PSI, 2008.
  4. Dijon, Lycée Carnot, TIPE : Le bowling, Pierre Goguelat, CPGE 2ème année, MP, 2011.
  5. La Flèche, Lycée Prytanée, TIPE : La physique du billard, Matthieu Dolliou, CPGE 2ème année, MP*, 2014.
  6. Lille, Lycée Faidherbe, TIPE : Le billard, Vincent Bolle, CPGE 1ère année, MPSI, 2008.
  7. Lille, Lycée Faidherbe, TIPE : Le billard, Sylvain Capelle, CPGE 2ème année, PC, 2011.
  8. Lille, Lycée Faidherbe, TIPE : Le billard, Maxime Duprez et Romain George, CPGE 2ème année, PSI, 2014.
  9. Lyon, ECAM, TIPE : Le billard, Jérémy Crétin et Jérémy Quentin, CPGE 2ème année intégrée, PT, 2012.
  10. Lyon, Lycée Aux Lazaristes, TIPE : Le billard, Florian Carra, CPGE 2ème année, MP, 2011.
  11. Nancy, Lycée Henri-Poincaré, TIPE : La physique du billard, Julien Vukasin, CPGE 2ème année, MP, 2011.
  12. Neuilly-sur-Seine, Lycée Pasteur, TIPE : La physique du billard, Swann Bareilhe, CPGE 2ème année, MP, 2012.
  13. Nice, Lycée Masséna, TIPE : Le billard, Siméon Nenoff, Frédéric Bieber et Adrien Génin, CPGE 2ème année, MP et PC, 2008.
  14. Paris, Lycée Saint-Louis, TIPE : La dynamique du billard, Laura Sobra, CPGE 2ème année, PC, 2011.
  15. Perpignan, Lycée Arago, TIPE : Le billard, Baudoin Espieux, CPGE 2ème année, PSI, 2013.
  16. Reims, Lycée Roosevelt, TIPE : Le billard, Chloé Deflandre, Ellyn Dubecq, CPGE 1ère année, MPSI, 2016.
  17. Saint-Etienne, Lycée Fauriel, TIPE : La mécanique du billard, Victor Soriano, CPGE 2ème année, MP, 2011.
  18. Valbonne, Lycée International, TIPE : Le billard, Caroline Boyer, CPGE 2ème année, MP, 2012.

About the topic "Hydraulic ram" :

  1. Besançon, Lycée Victor Hugo, TIPE : Le bélier hydraulique, Anthony Doubey, CPGE 2ème année, PSI, 2015.
  2. Brest, ENSTA ParisTech, Projet de pompe hydraulique autonome basé sur un multiplicateur de pression, Vincent Macaigne, 2014.
  3. Burundi, Faculté des sciences appliquées, Département de Génie Electromécanique, PFE : Possibilité technique et énergétique du pompage pour l'irrigation d'une région agricole du Nord du Burundi, Claude Nkonji, 2009.
  4. Clermont-Ferrand, Lycée Blaise Pascal, TIPE : Le bélier hydraulique, Baptiste Durand, CPGE 2ème année, PSI, 2014.
  5. Cluny, Lycée La Prat's, TIPE : Le bélier hydraulique, Geoffroy de Saint-André, CPGE 2ème année, PT, 2011.
  6. Grenoble, INP-ENSE3, Maquette transparente de bélier hydraulique (YouTube, 03:19) ; Bélier hydraulique : Maquette transparente (YouTube, 06:43) Cyril Benistand, Matthieu Villevieille, Robin Vallée, Thomas Fayer, Pierre Coutouly et Alexandre Wettstein, Atelier d'ingénierie, 2015.
  7. Grenoble, INP-ENSE3, Modélisation de bélier hydraulique, Jean-Côme Biscay, Kenza Taoussi, Erwan Tardy, Raphaël D'Oliveira, Laurent Dumas, El Bachir Chakir et Pierre Boucher, Atelier d'ingénierie, 2015.
  8. Grenoble, INP-ENSE3, Projet de bélier hydraulique en haute montagne ; Alex Croutz et Jérémie Serfass, 2ème année, Filière Hydraulique, Ouvrages et Environnement, Option Génie Hydraulique et Ouvrages, 2016.
  9. Longwy, IUT Longwy, Université Henri Poincaré Nancy1, Projet tutoré : le bélier hydraulique, Quentin Ducassou, Julien Breemersch, Clément Malliard, 2ème année, GTE, 2009.
  10. Lyon, ECAM, TIPE : Le bélier hydraulique, Johanna Ankri, Justine Abou Chacra, CPGE 2ème année intégrée, PT, 2015.
  11. Lyon, INSA, PFE : HydroRam (.pptx, 2.5 Mo), Quentin Letellier, 2012.
  12. Lyon, Lycée du Parc, TIPE : Du coup de bélier dévastateur au bélier hydraulique salvateur, Florent Joyet, CPGE 1ère et 2ème années, MPSI et PSI, 2007 & 2008.
  13. Lyon, Lycée La Martinière-Monplaisir, TIPE : Le bélier hydraulique, Tristan Jardel et Ilham Hamdame, CPGE 1ère année, MPSI, 2008.
  14. Margency, Lycée Notre-Dame de Bury, TPE : Le bélier hydraulique, Nadir Bouchene, Marie Magana, Victor Gillibert, 1ère S, 2010.
  15. Montpellier, Ecole d'ingénieur SupAgro, Institut des Régions Chaudes, Le bélier hydraulique : mémoire de fin d'études d'ingénieur en agronomie tropicale spécialisé en gestion sociale de l'eau, Adrien Busson, 2010.
  16. Nantes, Lycée Clémenceau, TIPE : Le bélier hydraulique, David Rousseleau, Jonathan Coueraud et Jules Douet, CPGE 1ère année, MPSI, 2008.
  17. Nantes, Lycée Eugène Livet, TIPE : Le bélier hydraulique, Romain Leluc et Gwenhael Darcy, CPGE 1ère et 2ème années, PTSI et PT, 2008 & 2009.
  18. Nice, Lycée Masséna, TIPE : Le bélier hydraulique, Martin Roux, CPGE 2ème année, PC, 2019.
  19. Nogent-sur-Oise, Lycée Marie-Curie, Projet : Le bélier hydraulique, Louison Richet, Terminale STI2D, 2013.
  20. Paris, AgroParisTech, PFE : Le bélier hydraulique (projet de valorisation patrimoniale sur le canal de Gignac), Pauline Poutrain, Maelle Delabre, Félicie Aulanier, Christophe Abraham, Paul-Emile Noirot-Cosson, 3ème année, Ingénierie de l'Environnement, 2012.
  21. Paris, Institut de France, Panneaux descriptifs du fonctionnement d'un bélier hydraulique, dans le cadre du Printemps de l'Industrie (Pavillon de Manse, mars 2009) et des Journées de la Rose (Abbaye royale de Chaalis et musée Jacquemart-André - Chaalis, juin 2009), J.M. Vasseur, Service culturel et pédagogique.
  22. Paris, Lycée Claude Bernard, TIPE : Principe du bélier hydraulique, Baptiste Mathae, CPGE 2ème année, PSI, 2015 : Le bélier en action (.jpg, 100 Ko), Constitution (.jpg, 100 Ko).
  23. Paris, Lycée Saint-Louis, TIPE : Le bélier hydraulique, Mickael Roucou, CPGE 2ème année, PSI, 2011.
  24. Paris, Lycée Stanislas, TIPE : Le bélier hydraulique, Matthieu Ansart, CPGE 2ème année, PC, 2015.
  25. Pau, Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, Projet : Etude et Conception d'un bélier hydraulique, David Béritault et Luc Champault, Master Ingénierie des Systèmes Industriels (ISI), 2007.
  26. Rouen, Lycée Corneille, TIPE : Le bélier hydraulique, L. Duflot, CPGE 2ème année, PSI, 2011.
  27. Tananarive (Madagascar), Université d'Antananarivo, ESPA, Contribution à l'étude et réalisation d'un bélier hydraulique : mémoire de fin d'étude d'ingénieur grade Master 2 en Génie Mécanique et Industriel (.pdf, 2.6 Mo), Jean Harson Rakotonoely, 2019..
    A noter que ce mémoire reprend quasi-intégralement le texte et les équations des pages Web du Sujet Internet "Bélier hydraulique", comme suit :
    - Chapitre Principe : recopie intégrale des Phases de fonctionnement (sans mention de la source) : pages 10 à 11 du mémoire.
    - Chapitre Théorie : recopie quasi-intégrale de tout le chapitre (sans mention de la source) : pages 12 à 38 du mémoire.
    - Chapitre Pratique : recopie adaptée des paragraphes "Calcul d'un bélier" et "Bélier prototype à construire soi-même" : pages 42 à 47, et 54 à 55 du mémoire.
  28. Toulouse, Lycée Déodat de Séverac, TIPE : Le bélier hydraulique, Pauline Vie, Marc Chauchat, Gautier Combelles, CPGE 2ème année, PSI, 2015.
  29. Valbonne, Lycée International, TIPE : Le bélier hydraulique, Raphael Chattot, CPGE 2ème année, PSI, 2011.
  30. Valbonne, Lycée International, TIPE : Le bélier hydraulique, Samuel Franch, CPGE 2ème année, PC, 2021.

About the topic "Ornithology" :

  1. Vanves, Editions du Chêne, "Phénomènes - De la pollinisation à l'origine des comètes en 124 planches illustrées", Planche n32 intitulée "Chants des oiseaux", Editions du Chêne 2023, Suzanne Labourie, contributeur en Recherches et Coordination scientifique.

6. Weblinks that deal with Website Design and Checking

Site UKO.
Tutoriel HTML

Josselin Willette.
Les bases du HTML

Sébastien Laoût.
Balises nécessaires pour faire une page HTML 4.01 Strict

Alexandre Alapetite.
Caractères spéciaux et entités HTML

Web Design Group.
HTML 4 Reference

Alsacreations - Tutoriels et astuces.
Apprendre les standards Web, HTML, CSS, JavaScript, design et développement...

HTML 4.01 Specification

WDG HTML Validator.
Le validateur HTML du WDG (World Design Group) pour site entier

W3C - Markup Validation Service.
Le validateur HTML du W3C (World Wide Web Consortium)

Validateur HTML/XML.
Le validateur HTML Aborla du HTACG (HTML Tidy Advocacy Community Group) associé au W3C (World Wide Web Consortium)

W3C - Link Checker.
Le validateur W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) des liens, ancres et objets référencés en page Web

WDG - CSSCheck.
Le validateur CSS du WDG (Web Design Group)

W3C - CSS Validation Service.
Le validateur CSS du W3C (World Wide Web Consortium)

7. About the Author of this Website


Régis Petit, former engineer in Computing at EDF (Electricity of France) is a specialist in Systemic modeling. In 2005, he created this scientific information site which is used by numerous schools and organizations, in particular within the framework of projects at the studies end.
Through his research for nearly twenty years and the rigor of the results obtained, the author is one of the world referents of Billiards physics as well as French referents of hydraulic ram.

The various models made by the author are as follows :



Régis Petit was born on February 24, 1958.
- Engineer in Mechanics ("Arts et Métiers" - E.N.S.A.M. - Paris)
- Engineer in Applied Mathematics (E.N.S.E.E.I.H.T. - Toulouse)
- P.H.D. in Computing, Artificial Intelligence and Robotics (I.N.P.T. - Toulouse)
- Independent researcher in systemic modeling. France.

Copyright © 2005 Régis Petit.         CopyrightFrance.com        Last page update : March 2, 2024.